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Print Glossary: K - O

K
  • Keep standing - To hold type or plates ready for reprints.
  • Kerned letters - Part of the letter that projects beyond the body or shank, thus overlapping an adjacent character. Kerned letters are common in italic, script, and swash fonts.
  • Kerning - The adjustment of spacing between certain letter pairs, A and V for example, to obtain a more pleasing appearance.
  • Keyline - An outline drawn or set on artwork showing the size and position of an illustration or halftone.
  • Knockout - A shape or object printed by eliminating (knocking out) all background colors. Contrast to overprinting.
  • Kraft paper - A tough brown paper used for packing.

L
  • Laid - Paper with a watermark pattern showing the wire marks used in the paper making process. Usually used for high quality stationery.
  • Laminate - A thin transparent plastic coating applied to paper or board to provideprotection and give it a glossy finish.
  • Landscape - Work in which the width used is greater than the height. Also used toindicate the orientation of tables or illustrations which are printed ‘sideways’. See portrait.
  • Lateral reversal - A positive or negative image transposed from left to right as in a mirror reflection of the original.
  • Layout - A sketch of a page showing the position of text and illustrations and giving general instructions. More commonly referred to as “layout dummy” or “dummy.”
  • Lead or leading - Space added between lines of type to space out text and provide visual separation of the lines. Measured in points or fractions thereof. Named after the strips of lead which used to be inserted between lines of metal type.
  • Legend - The descriptive matter printed below an illustration, mostly referred to as a cutline or caption. Also an explanation of signs or symbols used in timetables or maps.
  • Letraset - A proprietary name for rub-down or dry transfer lettering used in preparing artwork.
  • Letterpress - A relief printing process in which a raised image is inked to produce an impression; the impression is then transferred by placing paper against image and applying pressure.
  • Letterset - A printing process combining offset printing with a letterpress relief printing plate.
  • Letterspacing - The addition of space between the letters of words to increase the line- length to a required width or to improve the appearance of a line.
  • Ligature - Letters which are joined together as a single unit of type such as oe and fi.
  • Lightface - Type having finer strokes than the medium typeface. Not used as frequently as medium.
  • Line conversion - Photographically eliminating middle tones from continuous-tone art or photographs so that it can be reproduced as line copy.
  • Line Copy - Any copy that is solid black with no gradations in tone and is suitable for reproduction without using a halftone screen.
  • Line drawing - Artwork consisting of solid black lines. A drawing without half tones.
  • Linen-finish paper - A paper that has been embossed to achieve a surface resembling linen cloth.
  • Linen tester - A magnifying glass designed for checking the dot image of a halftone.
  • Lines per inch (LPI) - A measure of the frequency of a halftone screen (usually ranging from 55-200). 150 lpi is the standard printing resolution. Fewer lines per inch are often used for printing on newsprint or low quality paper.
  • Lining figures - Numerals that align on the baseline and at the top.
  • Lithography - A printing process based on the principle of the natural aversion of water to grease. The photographically prepared printing plate when being made is treated chemically so that the image will accept ink and reject water.
  • Long grain paper - Paper in which the grain direction parallels the longest sheet dimension.
  • Loose leaf - A method of binding which allows the insertion and removal of pages for continuous updating.
  • Luminosity - A value corresponding to the brightness of color.

M
  • Machine glazed (MG) - Paper with a high gloss finish on one side only.
  • Magenta - The process color for red.
  • Magnetic ink - A magnetized ink that can be read both by humans and by electronic machines. Used in check printing.
  • Making ready - The time spent in making ready the level of the printing surface by packing out under the form or around the impression cylinder.
  • Manila paper - A tough brown paper used to produce stationery and wrapping paper.
  • Margins - The non printing areas of page.
  • Mark up- Copy prepared for a compositor setting out in detail all the typesetting instructions.
  • Mask - Traditionally, opaque material or masking tape used to block-off an area of the artwork; the inactive area of a bitmapped image which will not respond to changes.
  • Masthead - Details of publisher and editorial staff usually printed on the contents page.
  • Matt art - A coated printing paper with a dull surface.
  • Measure- Denotes column width, expressed in picas.
  • Mechanical binding - A method of binding which secures pre-trimmed leaves by the insertion of wire or plastic spirals through holes drilled in the binding edge.
  • Metallic ink - Printing inks which produce an effect gold, silver, bronze or metallic colors.
  • Mezzotint - A random dot-patterned halftone screen or a method of engraving a plate to produce variations in tone.
  • MG (Machine glazed) - Paper with a high gloss finish on one side only.
  • Micrometer - A paper micrometer measures the thickness of paper in increments of 0.0001 inch.
  • Middle tones - The gray areas of a photograph that are lighter than the shadows and darker than the highlights.
  • Mock-up - Also known as alayout dummy. The rough visual of a publication or design.
  • Modern - Refers to type styles introduced towards the end of the 19th century. Times roman is a good example of modern type.
  • Moire pattern - The result of superimposing half-tone screens at the wrong angle thereby giving a chequered effect on the printed half-tone.
  • Monochrome - A black and white display with no gray tones.
  • Monospace - A font in which all characters occupy the same amount of horizontal width regardless of the character.
  • M-weight - A paper's weight as measured per 1,000 sheets.

N
  • Newsprint - Unsized, low quality, absorbent paper used for printing newspapers.
  • Nipping - A stage in book binding where after sewing the sheets are pressed to expel air.

O
  • Oblique - Roman characters that slope to the right, similar to italic, but less cursive.
  • Offprint - A run-on or reprint of an article first published in a magazine or journal.
  • Offset Plates - A method in which the plate or cylinder transfers an ink image to an offset or transfer roller, which then transfers the image to stock.
  • Oldstyle (US) - A style of type characterized by stressed strokes and triangular serifs. An example of an oldstyle face is Garamond.
  • One-up, two-up - Printing one (two, three, and so on) impression at a time in a single job.
  • Onion skin - A translucent lightweight paper used in air mail stationery.
  • Opacity - Term used to describe the degree to which paper will show print through.
  • Ornaments - Type ornaments used to embellish page borders, chapter headings, title pages, etc.
  • Orphan - Line of type on its own at the top or bottom of a page.
  • Outline - A typeface in which the characters are formed with only the outline defined rather than from solid strokes.
  • Out-of-register - Occurs when the film for the colors of a printed image is misaligned.
  • Overlay - A transparent sheet used in the preparation of multi-color artwork showing the color breakdown.
  • Overprinting - Printing over an area already printed. Contrast with knockout.
  • Overset- Excess type that cannot fit into space specifications.
  • Overstrike - A method used in word processing to produce a character not in the typeface by superimposing two separate characters, e.g. $ using s and l.