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Print Glossary: P - T

P
  • Page layout - The physical positions of elements on a document page, such as headers, footers, page numbers, and graphics.
  • Page proof - Initial impression of a page pulled for checking purposes before the job is sent to the image assembly department.
  • Pagination - The numbering of pages in a book.
  • Pantone Matching System - A registered name for an ink color matching system, usually abbreviated PMS.
  • Parallel fold - A method of folding; eg two parallel folds will produce a six page sheet.
  • Parchment - Originally a sheep or goat skin used for a writing surface, but more recently a paper with strong characteristics used for diplomas and certificates.
  • Paste up - The various elements of a layout mounted in position on pasteboard to form camera-ready artwork. Now seldom used in the era of desktop publishing.
  • PE - Abbreviation for “Printer's error,“ as opposed to AA.
  • Perfect binding - An inexpensive bookbinding technique in which the pages are glued rather than sewn to the cover and used primarily for paperbacks, small manuals, phone books, etc.
  • Perfector - A printing press which prints both sides of the paper at one pass through the machine.
  • Perforating rule - A device on a letterpress or the cylinders of an offset press used to perforate paper.
  • PH value - In paper it is the measurement of the degree of acidity and alkalinity.
  • PI fonts - Characters not usually included in a font, but which are added specially. Examples of these are timetable symbols and mathematical signs.
  • Pica - A printing industry unit of measurement. There are 12 points to a pica. Originally, one pica was approximately 0.166in. Now, in the era of computerization, a pica is 1/6 of an inch.
  • Picking - The effect of ink being too tacky and lifting fibers out of the paper. Shows up as small white dots on areas of solid color.
  • Pigment - Particles that absorb and reflect light and appear colored to our eyes; the substance that gives ink its color.
  • Pin register - Holes and pins applied to copy, film, plates and presses which are accurately positioned to ensure correct register of colors.
  • Plate - A metal or plastic sheet coated with light-sensitive photographic emulsion onto which an image is chemically etched. The plate is then mounted on the press and is inked, thereby becoming the image carrier to another roller or to the paper.
  • Plate cylinder - The cylinder that supports the inked plate on the printing press.
  • PMS - Pantone Matching System. A commonly used system for identifying specific ink colors.
  • Portrait - An upright image or page where the height is greater than the width.
  • Positive - A true photographic image of the original made on paper or film.
  • Posterization - The deliberate constraint of a gradation into visible steps as a special effect.
  • Post Script - A page description language developed by Adobe Systems. Widely supported by both hardware and software vendors it represents the current ÎstandardÌ in the market.
  • PPI (pixels per inch) - Specifies the resolution of an input device, such as a scanner, digital camera, or monitor. Web page resolution ranges from 72-96 pixels per inch.
  • Press proof - A copy obtained from inked type, plate, block or screen for checking purposes; a reasonably accurate sample of how a finished piece is intended to look. Also, to check for consistency and accuracy.
  • Process colors- See four color process.
  • Progressives - Color proofs taken at each stage of printing showing each color printed singly and then superimposed on the preceding color.
  • Proofreading marks - A standard set of signs and symbols used in copy preparation and to indicate corrections on proofs. Marks are placed both in the text and in the margin with a line connecting them.
  • Proportion scale - A wheel-like tool used in sizing art (reduction or enlargement) for reproduction.
  • Proportional spacing - A method of spacing whereby each character is spaced to accommodate the varying widths of letters or figures, so increasing readability. Books and magazines are set proportionally spaced, typewritten documents are generally monospaced.
  • Pulp - The fibrous cellulose material which has been mixed, beaten and diluted, to which chemicals and fillers may be added in preparation for the papermaking process.

Q
  • Quire- 1/20th of a ream (25 sheets).

R
  • Rag paper - High quality stationery made from cotton rags.
  • Ragged right/left - Typesetting style that is characterized by lines that end in unequal length, usually lined up flush on one side or the other example:flush left/ragged right.
  • Ream - 500 sheets of paper. Recto -A right hand book page (usually odd numbered), more significant than the reverse side, which is called the verso.
  • Registration marks - Small cross-hairs on film used in the alignment of negatives.
  • Register - The correct positioning of an image especially when printing one color on another.
  • Reflective art - Artwork prepared so that it may be photographed or input into a computer by scanner.
  • Reflective densitometer - Instrument used to measure the density on paper.
  • Resolution - The measurement used to express the quality of an character/image. Measured in dots per inch, the greater the number of dots, the smoother and cleaner appearance the character/image will have.
  • Rest in proportion (RIP) - An instruction when giving sizes to artwork or photographs that other parts of the artwork are to be enlarged or reduced in proportion.
  • Retouching - A means of altering artwork or color separations to correct faults or enhance the image.
  • Reverse out - To reproduce as a white image out of a solid background.
  • RGB - Red, green, blue. The additive primary colors used for computer monitor displays; also a color model. Cannot be used for printing. All RGB files must be changed to CMYK to be printed.
  • Rotary press - A web or reel fed printing press which uses a curved printing plate mounted on the plate cylinder.
  • Royalty-Free Photos or Images - Photos, graphic images, or other intellectual property that are sold for a single standard fee and may be used repeatedly by the purchaser. Typically with royalty-free clauses, the company that sells you the images still owns all of the rights to the images, and they are allowed for use only by the purchaser (i.e., the same images cannot be used by another company or individual without repurchase).
  • Runaround (see also Text wrap) - The ability within a program to run text around a graphic image within a document, without the need to adjust each line manually.
  • Running head - A line of type at the top of a page which repeats a heading.

S
  • Saddle stitching - A method of binding where the folded pages are stitched through the spine from the outside, using wire staples. Usually limited to 64 pages size.
  • Sans serif - A typeface that has no serifs (small strokes at the end of main stroke of the character). Helvetica, Geneva, and Arial are examples of sans-serif fonts.
  • Saturation - The amount of gray in a color. The higher the gray content, the lower the saturation.
  • Scale - The means within a program to reduce or enlarge the amount of space an image will occupy. Some programs maintain the aspect ratio between width and height whilst scaling, thereby avoiding distortion.
  • Score - To crease a sheet of paper or board so that it folds easier.
  • Screen frequency - The number of lines or dots per inch on a halftone screen.
  • Security paper - Paper incorporating special features (dyes, watermarks etc) for use on cheques.
  • Self-cover - The same paper stock is used on the cover as on the inside pages.
  • Serif - A small cross stroke at the end of the main stroke of the letter.
  • Set size - The width of the type body of a given point size.
  • Set solid - Typeset without leading (line spacing) between the lines. Type is often set with extra space; e.g. 9 point set on 10 point.
  • Set off - The accidental transfer of the printed image from one sheet to the back of another.
  • Sheet fed - A printing press which prints single sheets of paper, not reels.
  • Sheetwise - A method of printing a section. Half the pages from a section are imposed and printed. The remaining half of the pages are then printed on the other side of the sheet.
  • Side stabbed or stitched - The folded sections of a book are stabbed through with wire staples at the binding edge, prior to the covers being drawn on.
  • Side heading - A subheading set flush into the text at the left edge.
  • Sidebar - A vertical bar positioned usually on the right hand side of the screen.
  • Signature - A letter or figure printed on the first page of each section of a book and used as a guide when collating and binding.
  • Silhouette halftone- A halftone with the background, removed.
  • Silhouetting - Outlining continuous-tone art with paint or film before it is made into a halftone silhouette.
  • Size - A solution based on starch or casein which is added to the paper to reduce ink absorbency.
  • Slurring - A smearing of the image, caused by paper slipping during the impression stage.
  • Small caps - A set of capital letters which are smaller than standard and are equal in size to the lower case letters for that typesize.
  • Soft dot- A type of dot in a halftone screen whose edge is not smoothly circular. This can create a fuzzier image. Contrast with hard dot.
    binding edge at the back of a book.
  • Spot Color - A second color, usually in addition to black, to add color to your printed piece. The ink is usually Pantone Matching System (PMS) consisting of named or numbered colors. PMS is generally accepted throughout the printing and graphic arts industry as the standard.
  • SRA - A paper size in the series of ISO international paper sizes slightly larger than the A series allowing the printer extra space to bleed.
  • S.S. - Abbreviation for same size. Also indicated S/S.
  • Stem- The main vertical stroke making up a type character.
  • Stet - Used in proof correction work to cancel a previous correction. From the Latin, "Let it stand."
  • Strap - A subheading used above the main headline in a newspaper article.
  • Strike-through - The effect of ink soaking through the printed sheet.
  • Subscript - The small characters set below the normal letters or figures.
  • Subtractive primaries - The inks (cyan, magenta, and yellow) used in process-color printing to create different colors. In contrast to additive primaries, these produce darker colors when combined.
  • Supercalendered paper - A smooth finished paper with a polished appearance, produced by rolling the paper between calenders. Examples of this are high gloss and art papers.
  • Superscript - The small characters set above the normal letters or figures.
  • Swash letters- Italic characters with extra flourishes used at the beginning of chapters.
  • Swatch - A color sample.

T
  • Tabloid - A page half the size of a broadsheet, or twice the size of a sheet of standard typing paper. It is 11" x 17" .
  • Tabular setting - Text set in columns such as timetables.
  • Tearsheet - A single paper of a publication containing a specific ad or article in print.
  • Template - A standard layout usually containing basic details of the page dimensions.
  • Text type - Typefaces used for the main text of written material. Generally no larger than 14 point in size.
  • TIFF - A common format for scanned photographs, generally associated with grayscale photos or bitmap line art.
  • Tint - The effect of adding white to a solid color or of screening a solid area.
  • Tip in - The separate insertion of a single page into a book either during or after binding by pasting one edge.
  • Tone line process - The process of producing line art from a continuous tone original. Transparency - A full color photographically produced image on transparent film.
  • Trapping - A prepress technique which allows for variation in registration during the press run. This is done primarily by allowing an overlap between abutting colors.
  • Trim - The cutting of the finished product to the correct size. Marks are incorporated on the printed sheet to show where the trimming is to be made.
  • Turnaround - The length of time elapsing between the start and finish of a particular job.
  • Twin wire - Paper which has an identical smooth finish on both sides.
  • Two-color press - A press that prints two colors on one side of a sheet in one pass.
  • Type area - Area of the page designated to contain text and illustrative matter.
  • Typeface - A complete set of characters forming a family in a particular design or style.
  • Type family - Range of typeface designs that are variations of one basic style of design. Thus we have Helvetica bold, light, light italic, condensed, etc.
  • Typestyle - Variation within a typeface: medium, bold, italic, condensed, etc.
  • Typography - The design and planning of printed matter using type.